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EFSAS Article: China's Deployment of Gray Zone Tactics in the Indo-Pacific


Japan has responded to the expanding scope of Chinese gray zone operations in the East China Sea with a combination of diplomatic, military, and law enforcement measures. Maritime patrols of the JCG and the Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF), Japan’s navy, have expanded and investments in naval security units have increased as threat perceptions have been aggravated. Tokyo has also sought to boost its intelligence-gathering capabilities, including by ramping up surveillance and reconnaissance activities in the East China Sea and deepening cooperation with regional allies and partners, most notably the United States.