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EFSAS Article: Brief overview of the changing contours of Terrorism in J&K


Through a chronological lens, this Article attempts to explain the genesis and transformation of violence in Indian Administered J&K, taking as its departure point the allegedly rigged elections in 1987. Yet, contrary to the general belief that terrorism in the region can be attributed to this event, it was in fact the secretive Pakistani conspiracy – also known as Operation Topac - which was the flame that ignited the already smoldering Kashmir. This first phase of terrorism, which began in the late 1980s and early 1990s, was initially led by the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) and was characterized by propagated slogans for the independence of Kashmir, irrespective of their paradoxical nature as the JKLF was financed and  supported by the Pakistani military establishment and acted at its behest.